Ecosystems provide climate-change adaptation opportunities including ecosystem services, adaptation benefits and livelihood improvement especially for natural resource dependent communities. To contribute to the understanding of location specific adaptation processes of predominantly agro-pastoralists, a study was carried out in the central cattle corridor of Uganda to characterise ecosystem-based drought Adaptations. A cross sectional survey using semi-structured questionnaires, focus group discussions and key informant interviews were employed among 183 randomly selected households. The ecosystem-based adaptations (EbAs) to perceived drought impacts were characterised basing on ecosystem services, adaptation benefits to drought and livelihood improvement categories unveiling the different proportions of each EbA under each category. Water shortage and intense heat were the major perceived drought impacts. The use of drought resistant shade trees, water reservoirs and dams, and alternative ecosystem-based livelihoods were the majorly utilised EbAs. The alternative ecosystem-based livelihoods were the mostly used EbA dominating all the three categories. The utilisation of drought resistant shade trees dominated the ecosystem services and adaptation benefits categories, whereas the use of water reservoirs and dams were the mostly used EbA for livelihood improvement. These EbAs should be incorporated in climate-change adaptation policies and initiatives, while considering their subsequent dominating categories to enhance farmers’ resilience.
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