Over 70% of Uganda is infested by the tsetse ﬂy, which has negative eﬀects on human and livestock health. From colonial to post-independent Uganda, the Government of Uganda has worked to eradicate the tsetse menace. Despite these eﬀorts, recent veterinary reports from the Karamojasub-regionhaveindicatedwidespreadtsetseinvasion. Thisstudyinvestigatedthepotential impact of tsetse invasion on the socioecological resilience of pastoral communities in the Karamoja sub-region. Results indicated that tsetse invasion is spreading from north to south of Karamoja. The tsetse transmission route emerging from southern Karamoja is perceived to be a continuation of the tsetse belt from West Pokot, Kenya. Cases of livestock deaths, livestock abortions, decreased milk yields, restricted access to prime grazing lands, heightened human-wildlife conﬂicts and disruption on crop cultivation have been reported. A computed socioecological resilience index in the study areawaspositivebutlow. Owingtothetransboundarycharacteristicsoftsetseinvasionsandsources and the associated documented eﬀects, an urgent, strategic and system-wide intervention should be undertaken to control the tsetse invasion in this sub-region.
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